Thursday, May 2, 2013

Gram Geeta Adhyay - 19


श्रोतियाने केला प्रश्न । खेडें शहराहूनि महान । ऐसें म्हणतों आपण जन । परि एक खूण न विसरावी ॥१॥
One of the listeners expressed a doubt, "Sir! we say that the village is the most superior to the city. But we can't forget one conspicuous feature ||1||

शहरांत आहे उच्च शिक्षण । तें खेडयांत पावेल कोण ? कोणी आला जरी शिकोन । तरी येथे होतो  गावंढळ ॥२॥
In cities, their are best arrangements to provide higher education. How can such higher education be given in the villages? If anybody gets higher education in big cities and returns to the village, he becomes boorish, dupe and foolish with the association and company of the boorish village folks. ||2||

’ नगरामाजीं नागरचि होइजे ’ । यासाठी शहरचि विद्यार्थ्यां पाहिजे । खेडयामाजीं ’ नांगरचि वाहिजे ’ । ऐसें होतें ॥३॥
The native of the city becomes excellently cultural. So the learning students must reside in big cities. The boy, living in the village becomes perfect only in carrying his work with the plough. ||3||

ऐका ऐसी जयांची भावना । लक्ष द्यावें त्यांनी या वचना । येथे शिक्षणाची मूळ कल्पना । तीच चुकली आपुली ॥४॥
(Vandaniya maharaj replies) O listeners! Those who hold such misunderstanding firmly should pay full attention to what I am going to tell now. Basically, the concept of these people about education is totally wrong. ||4||

दिखाऊ कपडे कोरडी ऐट । नोकरपेशी थाटमाट । हें शिक्षणाचें नव्हे उद्दिष्ट । ध्यानीं घ्यावें नीट हें आधी ॥५॥
First of all, people, having such wrong concept should take it into careful consideration that the aim and object of education is not merely to have gaudy uniforms, knowledgeless showiness and the display of pomp and show of clerical white colloared employment. ||5||

अजब ऐसी शिक्षणाची प्रथा । जेथे कामीं नये बापाची संथा । बाप करी शेतीची व्यवस्था । मुलगा मागे नोकरी ॥६॥
Is it a good education where the learning given by father becomes useless to the son? This is a very queer and surprising manner of education. Father toils in cultivation of the land while the son wanders in a city in search of some employment. ||6||

व्हावें मोठे बाबूसाहेब । काम जुजबी पैसा खूब । मोठी पदवी दिखाऊ ढब । ही उच्चता म्हणोंचि नये ॥७॥
Seeking a good job, strutting as some eminant boss; working with least labour and earning a fabulous salary; obtaining higher degree in education and making showy pomp- all these should not be considered as the characterestics of superiority of a man. ||7||

हें सर्व मागील विसरोन । मुलामुलींना द्यावें शिक्षण । जेणें गांवाचें वाढेल भूषण । सर्वतोपरीं ॥८॥
All these ideas of earlier generation should now be forgotten. Today, the boys and girls in the family should be provided such education as will grow the glory and adornment of the village in all respects. ||8||

नुसतें नको उच्च शिक्षण । हें तों गेलें मागील युगीं लपोन । आता व्हावा कष्टिक बलवान । सुपुत्र भारताचा ॥९॥
All these were the absurd ideas and concepts of earlier generation. Today mere higher education is not a must. The best son of Bharat in this present era must be hard working, labourious, strong and powerful. ||9||

शिक्षणांतचि जीवनाचें काम । दोन्हींची सांगड व्हावी उत्तम । चिंता नसावी भोजनासाठी दाम । मागण्याची भीक जैसी ॥१०॥
Life and education should be firmly co-related. Educated One should have no worries to go on begging from door to door to earn his livelihood. ||10||

मुलांत एखादा तरी असावा गुण । ज्याने पोट भरेल त्यांत निपुण । नये संसारामाजी अडचण । कोणत्याहि परी ॥११॥
The boy should be perfectly expert in some art or workmanship so that he can feed his wife and children. He should not face any hardship or dearth in his householder's life. ||11||

जीवनाच्या गरजा संपूर्ण । निर्वाहाचें एकेक साधन । संबंधित विषयांचें समग्र ज्ञान । यांचा अंतर्भाव शिक्षणीं ॥१२॥
Today's educational curriculum must contain the following objectives. Education must be useful and capable of fulfilling the entire needs of life. It should provide at least one means to earn livelihood. It should impart scientific and complete practical knowledge in regard to the other related aspects of the subjects. ||12||

नदी तलाव आणि विहिरी । यांत पोहणें नानापरी । आपत्ति येतां धावोनि तारी । ऐसें शिक्षण असावें ॥१३॥
In education, the student should be taught and trained perfectly in swimming in rivers, tanks and wells. If anybody is drowning, he must rush to him and save his life from drowning. such education is really needed. ||13||

गांवीं भोजनाचे असती प्रसंग । स्वयंपाक करतां यावा यथासांग । हेहि कला शिकवावी सप्रयोग । मुलांमुलींसि ॥१४॥
On many occasions the whole village dinners are arrenged. For those collective dinings, the boys and girls should be able to cook various food items. This practical training and knowledge should be given through actual demonstrations and experiments to both boys and girls. ||14||

असलें शिक्षण वाटतें साधारण । परि याचें जीवनांत अग्रस्थान । नाहीतरि जगावें जनावरासमान । होईल स्वयंपाक न येतां ॥१५॥
Outwordly and superficially, such education and training seem to be very ordinary. But in life, it carries a great importance. Otherwise, if the boy or girl can't cook well, they will have to live like animals. ||15||

मुलगी बहु शिकली शाळेमाझारीं । परि स्वयंपाक करतां नये घरीं । काय करावी विद्याचातुरी ? कामाविण लंगडी ती ॥१६॥
The girl might have acquired much education in school & college. But if she fails to cook well at home, how can we admire her higher education? In household duties, such girl proves to be useless, lame and most ignorant. ||16||

अशिक्षित स्वयंपाक करोनि खाई । सुशिक्षित चणे फाकीत राही । दोरास घालता नये वंधाहि । जेथे तेथे पराधीन ॥१७॥
If it need be, the uneducated one can cook well and satisfy his hunger. But the educated one (not knowing how to cook) will have to consume soaked and parched grams. He can't tie a knot to the rope. He has to depend upon help from others every now and then. ||17||

मुलास पंगत वाढतां नये । घरचें पाणी भरतां नये । आपुल्याच तोर्‍यामध्ये राहे । तरि तें व्यर्थ ज्ञान त्याचें ॥१८॥
If the learned boy can't serve food properly in dining rows, if he can't store water for his home and if he always behave struttingly and showily, his education is fruitless and valueless. ||18||

घरीं ज्याची उणीव पडे । मुलगा धावोनि पुरवी कोडें । धडाडीने कर्म करण्या धडपडे । तरीच शिक्षण कामाचें ॥१९॥
If some difficulties come before the family, the boy should be able to solve them. If he comes forward to enact with vigour and dashing enthusiasm, then only the education and training, that he has taken should be considered as useful. ||19||

विद्येअंगीं व्हावा विनय । विद्या करी स्वतंत्र निर्भय । शिक्षणाने वाढावा निश्चय । जीवन-जय करावया ॥२०॥
For making life the most successfully accomplished, the education must create humility and politeness, self-reliance, straight forwardness and ability to take firm decisions in the learner. ||20||

याचसाठी शिक्षण घेणें । कीं जीवन जगतां यावें सुंदरपणें । दुबळेपण घेतलें आंदणें । शिक्षण त्यासि म्हणों नये ॥२१॥
Therefore such education should be taken which can make the life of man happy and beutiful. That which creates constant feebleness, inabilities, helplessness cannot be called as real education. ||21||

गांवावर आली गुंडांची धाड । विद्यार्थी दारें लाविती धडाधड । वाडवडिलांच्या अब्रूची धिंड । काय शिक्षण कामाचें ? ॥२२॥
The ruffians and gundas have attacked upon the village. If the young students quickly shut the doors and windows through great fear ( inspite of facing those guandas boldly & bravely) while the guandas are molesting and disgracing the elders; what is then the use of the education which they have been taking? Such education, which makes the younger generation weak and coward is useless. ||22||

म्हणोनि पाहिजेत बलवान मुलें । कुस्ती मल्लखांब खेळणारे भले । धडाडीने प्रतिकारार्थ धजले । तरीच शिक्षण उपयोगी ॥२३॥
When the boys become physically strong and vigourous, when they regularly exercise on the `Malakhaamb' (a wooden piller in gymnasiam) and get ready to face boldly, daringly and dauntlessly, then the education and training, they are taking, can be called as the useful education. ||23||

ऋषिकालीन ऐसी प्रथा । शिक्षणांत होती जीवन-संथा । याकरितां आश्रमांची व्यवस्था । होती पूर्वी ॥२४॥
In the ancient period of the sages, hermits & seers, knowledge, useful for house life was imparted along with the intellectual education of different sciences, vedas etc. The Gurukul ashram arrangements were established with this intention that the student should be given traditional education of sciences and practical learning of all activities useful in daily routine and behaviour in life. ||24||

धनुर्विद्या मल्लविद्या । आयुर्वेद आणि शस्त्रास्त्रविद्या । उत्तमोत्तम चौदा विद्या । शिकवीत होते आचार्य ॥२५॥
In that ancient vedic age, The acharyaas of such Gurukul ashramas used to impart knowledge of all sciences alongwith the training in uses of different weapons, skill in bow & arrow; wrestling, Ayurved, the most excellent 14 sciences and arts etc. (Thus, they used to make their diciples well trained in bookish knowledge of all sciences as well as practical knowledge of all excellent arts and manners of good living etc. ||25||

चित्रकला चर्मकला । रांगोळियांचीहि उत्तम कला । बुरडकाम कुंभारकामादि सकला । चौसष्ट कला नानापरी ॥२६॥
(In the above two stanzaas, vandaneeya maharaj is giving the details about the type of education given for a good life In Gurukul ashram system) The learners were given the knowledge of sciences and alongwith that traditional learning, the students were given practical knowledge of sixtyfour different arts such as - drawing & painting, making leather footwears and other articles, rangolee designs & patterns, basket making and art of making different beautiful decorative things from bamboo; pot making etc. ||26||

संगीतशास्त्र स्वयंपाकशास्त्र । गृह स्थापनेचें सुंदर तंत्र । अश्वपरीक्षा रत्नपरीक्षादि समग्र । जीवनविद्या शिक्षणीं ॥२७॥
(Alongwith these arts & skills) the students were given scientific & practical knowledge of Music, cooking, house building and construction, science of examining the horses, valuable diamonds & gems etc. It means,very useful practical knowledge of life was necessarily provided to the youngers alongwith the knowledge of different arts and sciences. ||27||

ऐसी प्रथा पूर्वी होती । आता उच्च ज्ञान घेवोनि येती । परि गांवची न सुधारवे शेती । गांवच्या उपलब्ध साधनांनी ॥२८॥
Such was the method of imparting all sided knowledge in twelve years in Gurukul ashramas. Today, the boy takes higher eeucation in agriculture. But he can't improve the agriculture in villages by making the best use of the traditional or other means, tools, equipments that are availabe in the villages ||28||

शिक्षण झालें वैभवस्थानीं । मग गांवचें जीवन न बसे मनीं । उच्च ज्ञान आणावें साध्या जीवनीं । कैसें तेंहि कळेना ॥२९॥
The education (particularly higher college education) today has become luxurious and an enjoyment of pleasures of city life. So the student (learning in cities) doesn't like the life in village. He can't understand how to bring his acquired higher knowledge, know-how and skill in his routine simple life. ||29||

त्यापेक्षा उच्च ज्ञानाचीं विद्यालयें । गांवींच आणावीं निश्चयें । जीं ग्रामजीवन सजवितील चातुर्ये । शिकवोनि जना ॥३०॥
So, now it will be better to bring those institutions, imparting higher knowledge and education from cities into villages. These colleges and institutions when function in the villages, they can provide higher knowledge of arts, sciences, scientific know how and can definitely bring glory and adornment to the rural life. ||30||

मुलांना शिकवाव्या नाना कला । चापल्य ध्येयनिष्ठादि सकला । गांवचि सांभाळूं शकेल आपुला । ऐसें द्यावें शिक्षण ॥३१॥
This institutions (functioning in villages) will educate and train the male & female pupils in the villages, in different arts, swiftness in enactments, and they will imbibe in pupils firm faith and loyalty towards their aims & objects in life. Through such institutions, the village boys and girls should be given such knowledge and training which will enable them to maintain the village business properly. ||31||

गांवासि कैसें आदर्श करावें । याचेंचि शिक्षण प्रामुख्यें द्यावें । सक्रियतेने करावयासि लावावें । विद्यार्जनीं ॥३२॥
The village pupils should preferably be taught and trained in how to make their village an ideal one. While imparting such education & training, they should actually enact using their practical knowledge and skills and make the village ideal. ||32||

सहकार्याची प्रबल भावना । हेंचि शिक्षणाचें मुख्य सूत्र जाणा । सहकार्यावाचोनि शिक्षणा । महत्त्व नाही ॥३३॥
The main principle of education should be to develop forcefully the consciousness of extending mutual co-operation among people. Education without intence feel of co-operation carries no importance. ||33||

व्हावें परस्पराशीं पूरक । हेंचि आहे शिक्षणाचें कौतुक । व्यक्तिनिष्ठतेने भयाण दु:ख । मानव-जीवनीं ॥३४॥
When education makes people to co-operate each other and brings a habit of mutual co-operation then it can be admired and marvelled. If the nationals become loyal and fully devoted to some great person and if they handover him all powers and full freedom to govern the country or society etc. it has always adversely resulted and the human life had to suffer greatest sorrows, agonies, tormentations etc. ||34||

जनसेवेचें प्रमाणपत्र । त्यासि महत्त्व यावें सर्वत्र । उद्याचें राष्ट्र आजचे कन्यापुत्र । समजोनि त्यांना सुधारावें ॥३५॥
The individual, who can produce the certificate about his creative and practical participation in social and public service, should be given top priority and importance in every field. The tomorrow's nation will come into concrete form and shape from among the child generation of today. So they must be improved (by providing education & training as described above) and made capable and worthy of holding the reins of their future nation. ||35||

गांवचें सर्वांत मुख्य पुत्रधन । त्याचें संरक्षावें चरित्रधन । तेणें गांवाचें वाढेल महिमान । चारित्र्यापरी उज्ज्वल ॥३६॥
The sons of the villagers are the main and the most valuable treasure of the village. So it is the duty of one and all to protect the virtueousness, truthfulness, auspiciousness of their character. Alike their excellent and brilliant characters, the importance and prestige of the village will also grow more and more ||36||

आपणांसि वाटे जैसें गांव व्हावें । तैसेंचि बालकांना शिकवावें । शहाणे करोनि सोडावे । विद्याशिक्षणें सर्वचि ॥३७॥
You should provide the children in the village that knowledge & training by which they will bring your future village of dream and imagination in reality. All villagers should be given education so that all in the village will become wise. ||37||

बाळपणींच शिक्षण होई । वय झालिया त्रास जाई । वळविल्याहि न वळती कांही । इंद्रियें त्यांचीं ॥३८॥
It is very easy and convenient to educate a person in his early childhood. When he grows older and older, it becomes more and more tedious and difficult for him to learn, and for others to teach him because the impressions in early childhood get firmly fixed and imbibed. They can't be so easily turned and diverted. ||38||

मग तो राही आंगठाछाप । कोणीहि त्याला द्यावी थाप । आयुष्यभरी कष्ट-संताप । भोगीतसे आंधळयापरी ॥३९॥
He grows older in age but remains illiterate (can't read and write, can't sign, so always puts thumb impressions). Anybody can make him fool and deceive him. Like the blind, he has to endure great hardships; laborious enactments, disappointment and violent anger, distress etc. ||39||

त्यासि बंद उन्नतीचीं द्वारें । आयुष्य जाय हमालींत सारें । किसान परि कळेना गोजिरें । शेतीचेंहि नवें ज्ञान ॥४०॥
His doors to glory & prosperity becomes permanently closed for him. He has to waste his whole precious life in doing laborious activities to earn his livelihood. If he is a peasant, he toils hard in cultivation and enacting all necessary agricultural activities. But being ignorant, he can't earn & use the new know-how in the agricultural field. ||40||

नाही अवजारांत सुधारणा । सुधारूं न शके पिकें नाना । घाण्याच्या बैलापरी धिंगाणा । जीवनाचा त्याच्या ॥४१॥
Being illiterate and ignorant, he doesn't know the newly invented and improved agricultural implements, improved medicines, seeds etc. So he can't improve his crop and increase the quality and quantity of agricultural procurements. His whole life becomes wasted in enacting tiresome, disinteresting circumambulations like the bullock going round and round in oil mill. ||41||

वडिलाने मुलगा नाही शिकविला । तोहि पापांचा भागीदार झाला । जैसें जन्म देणें कर्तव्य त्याला । तैसेंचि शिक्षण देणें अगत्याचें ॥४२॥
Father, who doesn't provide proper education to his son is accountable for the sins committed by his son. As to produce the child is the duty of an individual, it is also the most indespensible duty of that individul to provide proper education to his son. ||42||

जरि आपुल्याने व्यवस्था नव्हे । तरि देशोध्दारक संस्थेसि सोपवावें । परि मुलास पतित न ठेवावें । अशिक्षितपणें कधीहि ॥४३॥
If (due to his inabilities) he can't provide good and proper education to his son, he should hand over the son to some institution devoted for national development and improvement activities. But under any circumstances, he should not keep his son illelerate and make his life wretched and miserable. ||43||

आईबापांनी अंगावरि । मुलें ठेवूं नयेत निरंतरी । सोपवावीं बालकांच्या विद्यामंदिरीं । रक्षक असतील जे त्यांना ॥४४॥
The parents should never insist upon keeping their children with them through attachment and affection for them. When they attain four or five years of their age, they should be admitted in kindergarden (preprimary) schools; and they should be handed over to the directors of such institutions. ||44||

जन्म देण्याचें काम मातापित्यांचें । शिक्षणाचें काम विद्यागुरूंचें । तेथे आसक्तीने पुत्रधन देशाचें । बिघडवूं नये लाडवोनि ॥४५॥
To produce child is the duty of the parents. Teacher's duty is to provide proper knowledge and education to the child. So, parents should not spoil the life of their child through attachment and affection for it; and should not waste and spoil the further new generation for want of good education. ||45||

आईबापांचा प्रेमळ चाळा । पुरवी लहान मुलांचा आळा । मुलगा होतो ठोंब्या-भोपळा । अतिलाडाने निकामी ॥४६॥
The parents of the child gratify the fond of fancies of their child through their intense love and affection. They provide every demand of their children. Such over coaxing and fondling of children always spoils their life. It makes those children ignorant, and foolish inactive. ||46||

हें तों विद्यागुरु साहेना । अथवा शिक्षिका चालूं देईना । मुलांस वळवावें कैसें त्यांना । माहीत असतें मानसशास्त्र ॥४७॥
The teachers (male & female) never allow such over coaxing of children. They know well the psychology of children. They can understand the liking, dislikes, traits and properties of the children and can give a proper turn to their life. ||47||

म्हणोनि सर्व गांवाने मिळून । काढावें शिशुसंगोपन । बाईबुवास शिक्षण देऊन । नेमावें त्या कार्यासि ॥४८॥
Therefore, a good child care centre should be started in the village. The grown up aged males and females should be appointed in such child care centres by providing them proper training and education in child development. ||48||

असावें गांवींच विद्याभुवन । बालोद्यान शिशुसंगोपन । मुलें बाळपणींच त्यांत ठेवोनि । वळण द्यावें साजेसें ॥४९॥
Through the child care centere, a pre-primary school, children's park, child care home should be set up and run in village itself. The children should be admitted in these institutions in their early childhood and should be given proper disciplined well formed shape and training. ||49||

आईबापांस फुरसत नाही । कामास जातां अडचण येई । मुलाबाळांची आबाळ होई । हें सर्व मिटे विद्याश्रमें ॥५०॥
The parents belonging to working class have to attend their duties and work. So they can't provide enough time to pay good attention to their children. They can't take their smaller children alongwith them on their working places. It brings inconviniences to the children and makes the parents worried for the children. The child care centeres in the villages can ward off the worries of such parents through the good ecucational institutions. ||50||

याचेंचि त्यांना असावें शिक्षण । कैसें करावें बालसंगोपन । आपलें काम द्यावें नेमून । मुलामुलींना कैशापरी ॥५१॥
The teachers (male and female), working in `Baal-waadee' (child care centres or kindergartan schools) should be given proper training of how to treat, tend and develop the infants. They should know, how to distribute proper activities to the male and female children according to their inclinations and abilities. ||51||

कोठेहि मुलांना लहानपणीं । व्यसनें लागूं न द्यावीं कोणी । लागतांचि घ्यावी झाडणी । शिक्षकां-पालकांची ॥५२॥
A great careful attention should be given in preventing children from forming any bad habits or from falling prey to addictions. If any child is found, having any bad habit or addiction, its parents and teachers should immediately be called for the thorough enquiry and they should be strictly taken to task and handled for their negligenece. ||52||

नाहीतरि एककल्ली । शिक्षण घेवोनि वृत्ति केली । आपण फसोनि दुसर्‍यांचीं फसविलीं । मुलेंबालें, ऐसें न हो ॥५३॥
If, after taking such education which had made the teacher stubborn and obstinately adherent, the teacher now imparts the same kind of education. it will mean that the teacher had been cheated and deceived in his learning and now he is cheating and deceiving the innocent children of others. This must not be happened in case of the teachers now. ||53||

म्हणे मी शिक्षणकार्यी लागलों । पवित्र गुरुजी मुलांचा झालों । परि व्यसनांचा अवतार बनलों । म्हणोनि मना धिक्कारीना ॥५४॥
(If somebody thinks), I have devoted myself to the cause of education. I have become a respectable teacher of the children. But I have got myself fully addicted and yet, I feel no shame for this. ||54||

मुलांस म्हणे सद्वर्तनी राहा । आपण बिडी पिण्यांत वाजवी दहा । मग उष्णतेने बोलतो पहा । साजरा रेलगाडीपरी ॥५५॥
Such addicted teacher advises the children to develop moral conduct. However, he himself wastes his time till Ten o'clock in smoking bidis. Then through the smoking heat he speaks like a steaming and roaring railway engine. This should not happen in case of teachers. ||55||

ओळखोनि गांवाची जबाबदारी । शिक्षक जिव्हाळयाने काम करी । तरीच गांव होय स्वर्गपुरी । न पडे जरूरी कोणाची ॥५६॥
If the teacher realises his responsibilities and duties towards his village and renders his duty through sincerity and honesty, his village will become divine and pleasant as a heaven. Then the village will suffer no dearths and wants of anybody or anything. ||56||

घरींदारीं उत्तम पाठ मिळे । जें जें पाहिजे तें तें कळे । तरीच गुरुजनांचा आशीर्वाद फळे । काम केल्या विकासाचें ॥५७॥
If the children could seek virtueous, good and moral knowledge and learning lessons at home and outside in the village; if they could seek required learning and training; the teachers will also seek a credit for sharing the development activities of the village. ||57||

जीवन-विकासाचें शिक्षण । गांवींच असावें सर्वसंपन्न । आपुल्याचि ग्रामरचनेचें आयोजन । शोभवाया शिकवावें ॥५८॥
The village itself should have its own arrangements for providing proper learning and education to develop the village and village life. The children should be provided such training and education, such know-how that they can design the best structure of their village and develop it. ||58||

पाठशाळा असावी सुंदर । जेथे मुलीमुलें होती साक्षर । काम करावयासि तत्पर । शिकती जेथे प्रत्यक्ष ॥५९॥
The school in the village, imparting knowledge to the children of the village should be pleasant & beautiful. There, in that school, the children should be trained and made so dutiful that they should quickly obey and rush to enact any activity they are asked to do. ||59||

सुंदर गाणें बोलणें वागणें । टापटिपीने घरीं राहणें । आपलें काम आपण करणें । शिकवावें तयां ॥६०॥
In that village school, children should be taught and trained in singing beautifully and melodiously. They should be taught to converse in sweet speech, they should follow the manners of polite and model behaviour; the good manners and rules of conduct at home and in public. They should be made self - relient. ||60||

ऐसें करितां होईल प्रगति । मुलें उत्तम विद्यार्थी बनती । थोरथोर उद्योगधंदेहि शिकती । पुढे पुढे ॥६१॥
In this proper order of imparting education and good training in the village schools and institutions, the village will be improved. The children can become good and ideal students. In the course of time, they will become well skilled, well trained and highly educated to run and establish big industries. ||61||

विद्यार्थी कार्याने सुरवात करी । त्यांतचि गणितशास्त्रादि सांवरी । नाहीतरी वाचनपठणचि परोपरी । कांही करवेना अंगाने ॥६२॥
The students will acquire practical knowledge by actually experimenting and enacting. They will have enough active practice in subjects like mathematices and different sciences. Otherwise they will go on only memorising and reciting but never seek active and practical, experimental knowledge through their physical and personal participation in the educational activities. ||62||

म्हणोनि अभ्यासाबरोबरी । सक्रिय करूं द्यावी तयारी । मुलगा सर्व कामें करी । जीवनाचीं आपुल्या ॥६३॥
Therefore, alongwith his bookish study, the boy should be made to prepare him well skilled by actually participating in creative and experimental, practical activities. He must be able to perform all activities and duties which are essential for successful maintenance of his own life as well as for the village life. ||63||

तो पुढे ज्यांत दिसे निष्णात । त्या विद्येचा घेऊं द्यावा अंत । होऊं द्यावें अभ्यासें संशोधनांत । गर्क त्याला ॥६४॥
In future, when he is found greatly interested and well developed in particular subject or a faculty of knowledge, he should be provided the highest education in that subject and faculty by making all facilities available to him. He should form a mind and hobby to do researches in that subject or faculty through his intense and profound self study. ||64||

ऐसें जीवन आणि शिक्षण । यांचें साधावें गठबंधन । प्रथमपासूनचि सर्वांगीण । शिक्षण द्यावें तारतम्यें ॥६५॥
In this way life and education should be firmly correlated. The child should be provided such education with full discretion to help him for all sided development and that too from his early childhood. ||65||

जीवनाचें प्रत्येक अंग । शिकवावा महत्त्वपूर्ण उद्योग । काम करावायची चांग । लाज नसावी विद्यार्थ्या ॥६६॥
He should be helped to seek knowledge of each and every side and aspect of human life. By the by, he should be taught and trained in some important trade, profession and industrial art. The pupil should not feel shame and awkwardness in doing any excellent work or activity. ||66||

मुलगा वरोनि दिसे शिक्षित । काम करतांहि दिसे निष्णात । कामाची लाजचि नाही ज्यांत । जन्मास आली ॥६७॥
In appearance, the boy should be seemed to have been well educated. He should be seemed to be very skilful in enacting any work. No shame or awkwardness should develop in him in doing his duties. ||67||

करितो शेताचें निंदण । उपणणें, उतारी, नांगरण । शेण काढावयासहि उत्सुक मन । दिसे जयाचें ॥६८॥
The boy should be able to enact all activities in agricultural work such as uprooting weeds, winnowing, ploughing the field etc, Even he should be readily eager to collect the cow dung & and other animal's dung. ||68||

सर्व तर्‍हेचा उद्योगधंदा । कराया लागला मुलगा छंदा । वाढला अभिमान गांवचा बंदा । तयार झाला म्हणोनिया ॥६९॥
If in this way, The boy forms liking for enacting all activities in fields and in village, then a good worker and a real human has been produced in that village. The village should be proud of him. ||69||

ऐसी घ्यावी गांवें काळजी । मुलांच्या अज्ञानपणामाजीं । तरीच गांवाचा उत्कर्ष सहजीं । होईल तेणें ॥७०॥
Thus, the children should be taken well care since their early childhood. Then it will be very easy for the village to seek its glories and prosperities. ||70||

अवधी धरला अठरा वर्षांचा । पांग फेडील हजारो पिढयांचा । नमुना बनेल उत्तम गांवाचा । विद्यार्जनें ॥७१॥
If the period of the stage of studentship is considered as consisting of early eighteen years and the boy acquires proper learning and training in this manner, he will be able to pay off the debt of a thousand earlier generations and will become an ideal example of a good citizen. ||71||

जीवनाचें उज्ज्वल अंग । मुलें शिकतील होवोनि दंग । वाढेल गांवाचा रागरंग । म्हणाल तैसा ॥७२॥
If all children learn the brilliant aspects of human life, forgetting their physical consciousness then we can make our village well accomplished as we want it to be. ||72||

आजचे सान सान बाल । उद्या तरुण कार्यकर्ते होतील । गांवाचा पांग फेडतील । उत्तमोत्तम गुणांनी ॥७३॥
The tiny children of today will grow up as energetic workers of tomorrow. They will return the debt of the village with their excellent virtues, adroits and skills. ||73||

म्हणोनि म्हणतों बालधन । ठेवा गांवकर्‍यांनो ! जपून । कोण सांगेल निघतील रत्न । किती गांवीं ॥७४॥
Therefore (says Shree Tukadojee maharaj) O village Folks! Please preserve and take care of this great treasure in the form of today's children. Who can foretell how many and what kind of the greatest and the most excellent personalities may emerge from them ! ||74||

ईश्वराचें जन्म देणें । आईबापासि निमित्त करणें । विद्यागुरूंचें शिकवणें । भाग्य बने गांवाचें ॥७५॥
It is the will of the Great God to bring the being into existence by giving it birth in this world. The parents are only for reason's sake But much depends upon the teachers of the child The fair or unfair fortune of the village depends upon what kind of education and training does the teacher provide the child and brings him up. ||75||

या कोवळया कळयांमाजीं । लपले ज्ञानेश्वर रवींद्र शिवाजी । विकसतां प्रकटतील समाजीं । शेकडो महापुरुष ॥७६॥
These tiny children of today are just like the tender and delicate unopened buds of flowers. If they grow and develop through proper way of tending, it is possible that hundreds of greatest and the most excellent personalities like Dnyaneshwar, Ravindranath and Shivaji may emerge from and out of them. (This is the ideal of Parampoojya Shri. Saney Gurujee for this chapter) ||76||

कितीक होतील सेवाभावी । कित्येक चतुर कलावैभवी । उद्योगधंद्यांनी रंगवी । ग्रामासि आपुल्या ॥७७॥
From among these tiny children of toady some may vow themselves for the cause of their dutiful services to the world & humanity. Some may attain par excellence & mastery in some arts and dazzle the vision of the world with their brilliance. Some may develop the industries in the villages and bring an excellent prosperity and glories to the villages. ||77||

कित्येक निर्मितील यंत्रागार । कित्येक होतील इतिहासकार । कित्येक होतील सल्लाचतुर । गांवीं आपुल्या ॥७८॥
Some may develop as excellent engineers. Some may become the researchers in history. Some may become great diplomats. ||78||

कित्येक होतील न्यायाधीश । कित्येक काव्य सृष्टीचे ईश । कित्येक पिकवितील शेतीस । नवनव्या शोधांनी ॥७९॥
Some may become the impartial judges, several may become the most talented poets and produce excellent odes, epics & verses. Some of them may help to grow the agricultural production using their new inventions and researches ||79||

कित्येक होतील राजकारणी । कित्येक होतील तत्त्वज्ञानी । कित्येक देतील भूषण मिळवोनि । क्रीडांगणीं गांवासाठी ॥८०॥
Several from them may emerge as the most accomplished politicians. Some may become great philosophers. Several from them will become the most excellent players & athletes and may bring great honors and fame to their villages. ||80||

कित्येक संत-उपदेशक । कित्येक वीर-संरक्षक । कित्येक व्यापारनिपुण, सेवक । हरकामी ऐसे ॥८१॥
Some may turn to spiritual practices, become great, pious and auspicious holymen and saints and give spiritual precepts. Some bold children may become strong and brave heroes and take the responsibility to protect their villages. Several from them may achieve tremendous progress in industries and different professions ||81||

ऐसा हा साजेल गांव-संच । सर्व गुणांचा आदर्श उच्च । कोणी न दिसेल जीव नीच । आपुल्या गांवीं संस्कारें ॥८२॥
In this way a very ideal set of workers will be formed in the villages. This organisation of the village will consist of all highest and the most excellent talents, ideal qualities, skills, arts and knowledge. Then no individual with low and mean impressions will be found in the village. ||82||

गांवचें राज्य गांवचि करी । कोणाचीच न चाले हुशारी । आमुचे आम्हीच सर्वतोपरीं । नांदूं गांवीं ॥८३॥
The villagers themselves will then govern the village and look after the maintenance of the village life. No cunning person will cheat and deceive anybody by his sly & wicked tricks. We, all villagers shall enjoy every pleasure and all kinds of happiness in our own villages. ||83||

प्रेमें सर्वचि करूं सेवा । जेणें सर्व गांवासि लाभ बरवा । मग ऐसा कोण उरेल ठेवा । जो न लाभे खेडयामाजीं ? ॥८४॥
All of us will serve each other with love and affection. Such loving co-operation will benefit the village itself. (If all this becomes true) what least thing will be there which is not abailable in our villages? ||84||

खेडयांत उपजले ज्ञानेश्वरादि । काय उणी त्यांची बळबुध्दि ? श्रीकृष्ण आणि महात्मा गांधी । हालवी सूत्रें खेडयांतूनि ॥८५॥
Saint Dnyaaneshwar was born in a small village. Did he fall short in excellent talent & powerful intellect? Lord Krishna & Mahatma Gandhi held the reins of the national organisations living in the villages. ||85||

म्हणोनि मित्रहो ! ऐका निश्चिती । गांवींच मुलांचें शिक्षण घ्या हातीं । पांग फिटेल जन्मजातीं । सुखी होतील सकळ जन ॥८६॥
(Shri sant Tukadoji Maharaj says) Friends, therefore listen very attentively. Provide children all types of education & knowledge in your own villges. You can then get rid of the debt of your villages and all the villagers will become happy. ||86||

कोणी म्हणती जातचि मूर्ख । मुलें कैसी निघतील चलाख ? कांही जाती मुळांतचि चोख । हुशार असती शिक्षणीं ॥८७॥
Some may raise a doubt- "This particular caste has remained backward and ignorant (stupid) from generations to generations. How can their children become clever and educated? Some species (castes) of human are basically very intelligent and highly talented. So their children are naturally talented and clever in acquiring knowledge. ||87||

ही कल्पनाहि चूक असे । भेद मुळामाजीं नसे । तो परंपरागुणें भासे । वातावरणाच्या योगें ॥८८॥
This concept is also totally and basically wrong. There exists no such discrimination in the children in different castes. The difference seems superficially in the children only due to the different conditions and atmosphere in which the families belonging to those castes had been living in from past so many generations. ||88||

एकाचा बाप न्यायाधिकारी । काका करतो प्रोफेसरी । मामा कथाकीर्तन करी । मग तो हुशार कां नोहे ? ॥८९॥
Suppose, the father of some child is a good judge. His uncle is a learned professor. His maternal uncle is a spiritually devoted man and enacts keertanaas. Then why can't that boy become and grow up more and more clever and talented? ||89||

भोवती बुध्दिवंतांचा मेळावा । खावया सत्त्वशील मेवा । घरींदारीं सहवास बरवा । त्याची उन्नति सहजचि ॥९०॥
The boy has all relativs & people around him who are very talented and highly educated. He is always provided with nutriments and pure-pious dry fruits. He has very good companions at home and outside. Why can't the boy then become wiser & acquire great success and prosperity? ||90||

बाप गुराखी आणतो मोळी । चुलता विकतो बांगडयाचोळी । मामा सरकारी नोकरी सांभाळी । परि तो शिपाई-चपराशी ॥९१॥
(Now in this another case) Father of this another boy is a cow-keeper. He brings a fagot of firewood and sells from door to door. His uncle is a petty howker selling bangles and blouses of the females. His maternal uncle is a government servant but serves as a peon. ||91||

खावयासि कळणाकोंडा । संगतीस ढोरांचा तांडा । परि तो अभ्यासें पुढे जाय थोडा । तरी कौतुक कां न करावें ? ॥९२॥
At home, this boy has fragments of some pulses and bran (kalana konda) to eat as his food. He has company of cows & cattles. Though he is in such atmosphere, he shows some progress in education. Why then should he not be admired and encouraged? ||92||

त्याला सहवास उत्तम द्यावा । दर्जा जीवनाचा वाढवावा । त्याने समाज होईल नवा । ज्ञानवंतांचा निर्माण ॥९३॥
Provide him the association of good and excellent virtues and adroits, improve the arrangements of living and catering for him and see how the whole society of new generation alike him will become novel, talented and accomplished. ||93||

हें होण्यास पाहिजे शिक्षण । शिक्षणाशिवाय व्यर्थचि भाषण । हें कळेल तेव्हाचि जन । सुशिक्षित होतील ॥९४॥
This dream and imagination (of improved new generation and the society in future) will come in concrete reality only when the knowledge and education are imparted in a very systematic manner, otherwise all empty discussions and idle talks will become fruitless. All folks must realise this. If they are fully convinced about the need of education, they all will insistantly resolve to become educated. ||94||

नाहीतरि पूर्वजांनी मूर्खपण केलें । तें मुलाबाळांस भोगणें आलें । लौकरि सुधारेना एकदा चुकलें । दोष चाले कुळीं सार्‍या ॥९५॥
Our earlier generations of fathers and forefathers didn't care to provide proper education and knowledge as they themselves were completely ignorant about the need and importance of the education. Their sons and daughters had to suffer the bitter consequences of their negligence and ignorance. The mistakes committed can't be repaired immediately and quickly, and the faulty traditions continue in those families from generations. ||95||

घराण्यांत एकाने पाप करावें । पिढीजात पुढेहि तेंचि भोवे । ऐसें चालू आहे हें स्वभावें । लोकांमाजीं ॥९६॥
It is a practice of our human society. If somebody in the family commits some sinful wrong enactments, the whole family alongwith him and even the further generations of that family are considered sinful and wrong doers and so the poor miserable family has to face sufferings continueously in every successive generation. ||96||

मागील कलंक धुण्यासाठी । पुढे घडावें पुण्य गांठीं । तरीच सुटते बदनामी पाठी । लागलेली सारी ॥९७॥
The subsiquent new generation has to earn divine merits by enacting virtueous and noble, sublime deeds. then only the family can wash out the tarnished and impaired image because of somebody's sinful enactments. Then only the defamation of the family can come to an end and prevented. ||97||

एकाने सदगुण आचरिले । नांव त्याचें दिगंतरीं गेलें । पुढे पुत्र वांढाळ झाले । तरी कीर्ति मुरेना ॥९८॥
If somebody in the earlier generation of fathers or forefathers had enacted very virtueous noble enactments and benevolent services, his name, alongwith his family's title became glorious. He and the family had been held in high esteem in the society. Then, though any individual of the further generations of the family enacts any wrong deed, it does not affect the family adversely nor it can tarnish the honourable glorious image of the family. ||98||

खपती सारे मागील नांवें । जो तो म्हणे वडिलांस बघावें । कीर्तिवंत झाले पूर्वज बरवे । घराण्यामाजीं ॥९९॥
All folks are well benefitted in the name and fame of their fathers and forefathers in earlier generations. Everybody goes on bosting and exprexssing pride about his earlier elder ancestors. People also say, "See, what great personalities had been born in his family!" ||99||

परि त्याहूनि घडलें पाप अधिक । नांवाचा वाजा झाला आणिक । मग न विचारी मागील कौतुक । ’ काय झालें ’ कोणीहि ॥१००॥
But some individuals in the present generation of that renouned glorious family committed the most wretched and sinful, vile enactments. Their notoriety has been exposed and resounded everywhere. Now nobody speaks with honour and adrotion about the virtueous ancestors of the previous generations of that family. ||100||

चाले तीच परंपरा । जोंवरि विशेष न घडे पुत्रपौत्रां । ऐसीच आहे नामयात्रा । इहलोकींची ॥१०१॥
Unless any son, grandson or the individual in subsiquent generation of that defamed family performs some remarkable and exceptional enactments, the old, traditionally coninued fame or notoriety of the family can't get a turning point. This is the natural and ever running custom and tradition about the glory, name and fame in this mortal world. ||101||

एक एकवीस कुळें उध्दरितो । एक बेचाळीस कुळें बदनाम करतो । सारांश, विशेष घडल्यावरीच होतो । पालट नांवा ॥१०२॥
Viruteous and excellent enactments of some individual in the family make the name of the family glorious and his earlier twenty one generations seek upliftment. Some another individual enacts very omenious and wicked enactments. His forty two past generations get defamed. ||102||

रावण पवित्र ब्रह्मकुळींचा । राक्षस ठरे वंशचि त्याचा । विश्वमित्र राजर्षीचा । ब्रह्मर्षि होय विशेषत्वें ॥१०३॥
Ravan was born in a very virtueous, pious brahman family. But due to his wicked and evil enactments, he and all his successive generations had been defamed as demons. Vishwaamitra enacted an extraordinary and most remarkable austerity so, though originally he belonged to khshatriya lineage, he was considered and respected as Brahmarshi. ||103||

ऐसा विशेष कृतीचा महिमा । जाणोनि करावें परिश्रमा । उध्दरावें आपल्या कुळा ग्रामा । शिक्षण देवोनि नेटाने ॥१०४॥
This is the exceptional importance of some especial, extra-ordinary enactment. All should recognise it and provide proper, good, and useful knowledge and higher education to their children. By this, they should bring good name, fame and glory to their family, as well as to their village also. ||104||

गोरगरीबांचीं मुलें असती । ज्यांसि नाही शिक्षणाची शक्ति । त्यांसि सरकार वा जनपदाहातीं । देवोनि शिक्षण पुरवावें ॥१०५॥
The poor and lowest earning families can't provide good education to their children because they can't afford to spend on their children's learning from their meagre income. So either the government or the village panchayat should make all the necessary arrangement, free of charge to provide the best and essential education to the children of those poor villagers. ||105||

असतील भिकार्‍यांचीं मुलें । शिक्षण देवोनि करावे चांगले । पुण्य लाभेल पांग फेडले । त्यांचे म्हणोनि गांवासि ॥१०६॥
The village should make necessary arrangements to provide all educational fascilities to the children of beggars also. they should be made well educated so that their worst condition will be improved and the village will earn divine merit for uplifting them. ||106||

असोत गरीब किंवा धनिक । मुलांस विद्या शिकवाव्या अनेक । गांवाने संपत्ति पुरवावी अधिक । याच मार्गी ॥१०७॥
The children may come from the rich or the poor families. The village must make all necessary provisions to impart them all the most excellent, essential and highest knowledge and education. The village should provide maximum funds for child education, even by enduring great losses and hardships. ||107||

यांतचि वेचावें खूप धन । करावें पूर्वजांचिया नांवाने दान । विद्यालयें झालिया पवित्र संपन्न । गांव होईल स्वर्गपुरी ॥१०८॥
Maximum amount should be spent over education. So the rich should donate huge amounts in the name of their fathers & forefathers. When the village schools become so rich and auspicious, the village will become as a divine heavely place in no time. ||108||

आदर्श होतील विद्यार्थीगण । गांवाचें पालटेल जीवन । कोठेच न उरेल गावंढळपण । टिकाऊ परिवर्तन या मार्गे ॥१०९॥
The pupils will become the most ideal. The whole village life will become brilliant and pleasant. Ignorance and boorishness will seem nowhere in the village. This will be a permanent and everlasting change in village life. ||109||

विद्यामोलें ऐसें चढतां । येईल भाग्य गांवाचे हातां । तुकडयादास म्हणे तत्त्वता । विसरूं नका हा मूळमंत्र ॥११०॥
The status and worthiness of all villagers will be heightened through higher education. It will become the most fortunate village. (Vandaniya maharaj says) providing free learning (vidyaa daan) is the most sacred and superior basic incantation of the best fortune of the village & the villagers. ||110||

इतिश्री ग्रामगीता ग्रंथ । गुरु-शास्त्र-स्वानुभव-संमत । कथिला सर्वोन्नतीचा विद्यार्जनपथ । एकोणिसावा अध्याय संपूर्ण ॥१११॥
This scripture, the Graamgeeta has proved to the test of the Guru, the sciences and the self experiences. This nineteenth chapter `directing Education & Learning as the essentional & perfect way for the prosperity of all' is here by concluded. ||111||

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