Wednesday, July 23, 2014

मराठी लोकांचे शल्यशास्त्रातले योगदान

कोवासजी नामक एक दलित बैलगाडीवाला चेन्नई येथील कंपनी फौजेत दाणागोटा पोहोचवण्याचे कामास ठेवला होता.
१७९२ साली टिपु सोबतच्या युद्धात इंग्रजांच्या बुणग्यात हा ही होता. एकदा टिपूच्या फौजेने या बुणग्यांवर हल्ला करून कोवासजी सोबत ४ इंग्रज गारदी पकडले. चारही गारद्यांचे हात, तर कोवासजीचे नाक कापून त्यांना मुंबईस धाडले.
वाटेत यांचा मुक्काम पुण्यात झाला. इथे, पेशवे दरबारातील इंग्रजांचा वकील चार्ल्स मालेट यांनी या सगळ्यांची दशा पाहून वैद्यांना धाडले.
कोवासजीवर एका स्थानिक कुंभार वैद्याने शस्त्रक्रीया करून त्याला कृत्रिम नाक बनवून दिले.
या शस्त्रक्रीयेच्या वेळी दोन इंग्रज डॉक्टर,थोमस कृसो आणि जेम्स फिन्डले, तसेच लेफ्टनंट कर्नल वार्ड हजर होते. सहा महिन्यानंतर जेम्स वेल्स या चित्रकाराने कोवासजीचे चित्र रेखाटले. लवकरच हे चित्र आणि शस्त्रक्रियेचे पूर्ण वृत्तांत १७९३च्या मद्रास गॅझेटीयेर मध्ये छापले गेले.

  पुढे, ऑक्ट १७९४ साली हे वृत्तांत इंग्लंडच्या जेंटलमेन्स मॅगझीन मध्ये प्रकाशित झाले. या बातमीमुळे इंग्लंड मध्ये Plastic Surgery, आणि Rhinoplasty चे नविन वेड लागले. प्रत्येक डॉक्टर ही प्रक्रिया पुन्हा करू पाहत होता. शेवटी १८१४ साली डॉक्टर कार्पू यांनी इंग्लंड मधील पहिली Rhinoplasty पार पाडली.

Above image is the illustration from the celebrated 1794 “Letter to Editor” responsible for the western spread of the “Indian Method” for total nasal reconstruction. (From B. L.: Letter to Editor. Gentlemans Magazine, October, 891, 1794.)

A pariah named Cowasjee was a bullockcart driver with the Company army at Chennai(Madras). In 1792, during the war with Tipu, he was a camp follower with the army.
That year following a skirmish, he, alongwith four other soldiers, was captured by Tipu's forces. The hands of the four soldiers were ordered to be cut, while Cowasjee had his nose cut off. They were then marched off towards Mumbai to serve as a lesson to the Conpany Sarkar.
On their way they halted at Pune, the de-facto capital of Maratha Empire, and the then ally of English Company.
Here, Charles Malet, the ambassador of Company to the Peshwa's court, came to know of the plight of these men. He immediately called for local Doctors(Vaidya) to tend to their wounds.
A Vaidya of Potter(Kumbhar) caste performed Plastic surgery on Cowasjee and restored his Nose.
This operation was witnessed by two English doctors, Thomas Cruso and James Findlay. Lt. Col. Ward, who had lately arrived from Mumbai, was present as well. After six months, James Wales, a painter of renown during those days, drew Cowasjee. This sketch alongwith the description of the operation was quickly published in the Madras Gazetteer of 1793.
In Oct 1794, The Gentlemen's Magazine published the details of this singular operation alongwith pictorial details.

This fired the imagination of Dr. Joseph C. Carpue(1764–1840) of London. He conjured up the immense potential of the novel operation. Carpue got hold of details on the "Indian Nose", as it was called in surgical parlance.

Carpue performed the first rhinoplastic operation in 37 minutes on October 23, 1814. It was a great success. This was followed by a second operation. The rhinoplasties were received with wide ovation. All at once the 'Indian Nose', as it is called in medical text, became the rage of the times in Europe.

NOTE: This is a repost for the Non-Marathi readers of this page.

Image Source:

No comments:

Post a Comment