Monday, March 7, 2011

Geetai - Adhyay 4

Chapter - IV: Vikarma - The Key to Karma - Yoga

Chapter IV brings in another new concept of 'Vikarma' or Inward Effort as the key to Yoga of action. Without this key the lock of ultimate purity or self- knowledge will not and cannot open. This state has been defined as ‘Desirelessness’; It is a quality of mind. As a means of creating this, the pursuit of 'Swadharma' is not enough, other aids are needed. For this, we need to purify the mind. By self-examination, we have to cleanse the mind of its dirt.

When 'Vikarma' or the action of the mind and heart enters into 'Karma' or outward action desirelessness (purity) grows within us little by little. Without inward effort he illustrates a case of social worker like this 'To serve people who are poor or lame or are unhappy and in difficulties and to make them happy is the duty that falls to us in the ordinary course. But we should not conclude, therefore, that all social workers have become karma-yogis. If the attitude of mind (bhavana) in social service is not pure it can become a terrifying thing.

If the outward action is not moistened by the heart's affection then the performance of swadharma would remain barren, it would not bear the flower and the fruit of 'desirelessness'. Moreover, where the heart is not engaged egoism too would show its head. Sick men are usually peevish - and those who nurse them without the true spirit of service will only be disgusted.

When the inner feeling goes with the action, the latter is transformed into something unique. The power that karma develops at the touch of Vikarma is indescribable. The infinite power of the practice of swadharma lies latent. Touch it with Vikarma, and see what work it can do! In the resulting explosion desire and anger are destroyed, and the way made clear for the attainment of supreme wisdom. When you apply Vikarma to karma, the latter begins to acquire divine radiance. The mother strokes her child's back. A hand moves up and down a back, and no more. But who can describe the feelings arising in the hearts of the mother and the child from this commonplace action?

What do we mean by saying that, by pouring Vikarma into karma, it becomes akarma. If we mean that, while acting, we seem not to act, we do not feel the burden of action. Though we act, we are not the doer. By Vikarma, by inner purity, karma ceases to be karma. An action performed with pure heart does not attach itself to us. It leaves no residue of sin or virtue, papa or punya; else, what a heavy pressure of action would our hearts and minds have to bear! We feel that action crowds in on us from all sides; we feel that it has caught us by the throat. Just as the waves of the sea dash with force against the land and make channels into it, the complexity of action (karma) enters the mind and agitates it. The quality of pleasure and pain, sukha and dukha, develops; all peace is lost. The action takes place and is over, but its force remains behind. Action corrupts the mind, and destroys sleep.

But if, with karma we combine Vikarma, then, however much work you do; you will not feel its strain. The mind becomes still steady and radiant, like the polestar.

Saints, though engaged in a thousand action, do not allow a ripple to arise in the still waters of their mind. One can never understand this miracle until one goes to a saint and sees it. Though surrounded by libraries and reading rooms, man everywhere still remains a monkey without culture or knowledge. Though knowledge spreads so rapidly, how does man's mind manage to remain still empty? One man says that human memory is getting weaker; another, that men are losing the power of concentration. Lord Krishna said to Arjuna, 'You have been listening to so far too may things, and your mind is dazed. Till it gets steady, you will not see the way clearly. Stop reading books and listening to people, and now take sanctuary with the saints. There you can read the book of life. There, silent speech clears all your doubts. By going there you will understand how utterly serene the mind can be while performing continuous service; you will understand how, though action rages without, the heart can be turned to produce unbroken music.

गीताई - अध्याय

श्री भगवान् म्हणाले

योग हा अविनाशी मी स्वये सूर्यास बोलिलो ।
मनूस बोलिला सूर्य तो इक्ष्वाकूस त्यापरी ॥ १ ॥

अशा परंपरेतूनि हा राजर्षीस लाभला ।
पुढे काळ-बळाने तो ह्या लोकी योग लोपला ॥ २ ॥

तो चि हा बोलिलो आज तुज योग पुरातन ।
जीवीचे गूज हे थोर तू हि भक्त सखा तसा ॥ ३ ॥

अर्जुन म्हणाला

ह्या काळचा तुझा जन्म सूर्याचा तो पुरातन ।
तू बोलिलास आरंभी हे मी जाणू कसे बरे ॥ ४ ॥

श्री भगवान् म्हणाले

माझे अनेक ह्यापूर्वी झाले जन्म तसे तुझे ।
जाणतो सगळे मी ते अर्जुना तू न जाणसी ॥ ५ ॥

असूनि हि अजन्मा मी निर्विकार जगत्-प्रभु ।
माझी प्रकृति वेढूनि मायेने जन्मतो जणू ॥ ६ ॥

गळूनि जातसे धर्म ज्या ज्या वेळेस अर्जुना ।
अधर्म उठतो भारी तेंव्हा मी जन्म घेतसे ॥ ७ ॥

राखावया जगी संता दुष्टा दूर करावया ।
स्थापावया पुन्हा धर्म जन्मतो मी युगी युगी ॥ ८ ॥

जन्म-कर्मे अशी दिव्य जो माझी नीट ओळखे ।
देह गेल्या पुन्हा जन्म न पावे भेटुनी मज ॥ ९ ॥

नाही तृष्णा भय क्रोध माझ्या सेवेत तन्मय ।
झाले ज्ञान-तपे चोख अनेक मज पावले ॥ १० ॥

भजती मज जे जैसे भजे तैसा चि त्यास मी ।
माझ्या मार्गास हे येती लोक कोणीकडूनि हि ॥ ११ ॥

जे कर्म-सिद्धि वांछूनि यजिती येथ दैवते ।
मनुष्य-लोकी कर्माचे पावती फळ शीघ्र ते ॥ १२ ॥

निर्मिले वर्ण मी चारी गुण-कर्मे विभागुनी ।
करूनि सर्व हे जाण अकर्ता निर्विकार मी ॥ १३ ॥

कर्मे न बांधिती माते फळी इच्छा नसे मज ।
माझे स्वरूप हे जाणे तो कर्मात हि मोकळा ॥ १४ ॥

केली कर्मे मुमुक्षूंनी पूर्वी हे तत्त्व जाणुनी ।
तैसी तू हि करी कर्मे त्यांचा घेऊनि तो धडा ॥ १५ ॥


नेणती जाणते तेहि काय कर्म अकर्म हे ।
तुज ते सांगतो कर्म जाणूनि सुटशील जे ॥ १६ ॥

सामान्य कर्म जाणावे विकर्म हि विशेष जे ।
अकर्म ते हि जाणावे कर्माचे तत्त्व खोल हे ॥ १७ ॥

कर्मी अकर्म जो पाहे अकर्मी कर्म जो तसे ।
तो बुद्धिमंत लोकांत तो योगी कृत-कृत्य तो ॥ १८ ॥

उद्योग करितो सारे काम-संकल्प सोडुनी ।
ज्ञानाने जाळिली कर्मे म्हणती त्यास पंडित ॥ १९ ॥

नित्य-तृप्त निराधार न राखे फल-वासना ।
गेला गढूनि कर्मात तरी काही करी चि ना ॥ २० ॥

संयमी सोडुनी सर्व इच्छेसह परिग्रह ।
शरीरे चि करी कर्म दोष त्यास न लागतो ॥ २१ ॥

मिळे ते चि करी गोड न जाणे द्वंद्व मत्सर ।
फळो जळो जया एक करूनि हि न बांधिला ॥ २२ ॥

ज्ञनात बैसली वृत्ति संग सोडूनि मोकळा ।
यज्ञार्थ करितो कर्म जाय सर्व जिरूनि ते ॥ २३ ॥

ब्रम्हात होमिले ब्रम्ह ब्रम्हाने ब्रम्ह लक्षुनी ।
ब्रम्ही मिसळले कर्म तेंव्हा ब्रम्ह चि पावला ॥ २४ ॥

देवताराधने यज्ञ योगी कोणी अनुष्टिती ।
ब्रम्हाग्नित तसे कोणी यज्ञे यज्ञत्व जाळिती ॥ २५ ॥

श्रोत्रादी इंद्रिये कोणी संयमाग्नीत होमिती ।
कोणी विषय शब्दादि इंद्रियाग्नीत अर्पिती ॥ २६ ॥

प्राणेंद्रिय-क्रिया कोणी सर्व होमूनि टाकिती ।
चिंतनाने समाधीस अंतरी चेतवूनिया ॥ २७ ॥

द्रव्ये जपे तपे योगे चिंतने वा अशापरी ।
संयमी यजिती यज्ञ व्रते प्रखर राखुनी ॥ २८ ॥

होमिती एकमेकात कोणी प्राण-अपान ते ।
रोधूनि गति दोहोंची प्राणायामास साधिती ॥ २९ ॥

प्राणांत होमिती प्राण कोणी आहार तोडुनी ।
यज्ञ-वेत्ते चि हे सारे यज्ञाने दोष जाळिती ॥ ३० ॥

यज्ञ-शेषामृते धाले पावले ब्रम्ह शाश्वत ।
न यज्ञाविण हा लोक कोठूनि पर-लोक तो ॥ ३१ ॥

विशेष बोलिले वेदे असे यज्ञ अनेक हे ।
कर्माने घडिले जाण जाणूनि सुटशील तू ॥ ३२ ॥


द्रव्य-यज्ञादिकांहूनि ज्ञान-यज्ञ चि थोर तो ।
पावती सगळी कर्मे अंती ज्ञानात पूर्णता ।। ३३ ॥

सेवा करूनि ते जाण नम्र-भावे पुसूनिया ।
ज्ञानोपदेश देतील ज्ञानी अनुभवी तुज ॥ ३४ ॥

ज्या ज्ञानाने असा मोह न पुन्हा पावशील तू ।
आत्म्यात आणि माझ्यात भूते निःशेष देखुनी ॥ ३५ ॥

जरी पाप्यांमधे पापी असशील शिरो-मणि ।
तरी ह्या ज्ञान-नौकेने पाप ते तरशील तू ॥ ३६ ॥

संपूर्ण पेटला अग्नि काष्ठे जाळूनि टाकितो ।
तसा ज्ञानाग्नि तो सर्व कर्मे जाळूनि टाकितो ॥ ३७ ॥

ज्ञानासम नसे काही पवित्र दुसरे जगी ।
योग-युक्त यथा-काळी ते पावे अंतरी स्वये ॥ ३८ ॥

श्रद्धेने मेळवी ज्ञान संयमी नित्य-सावध ।
ज्ञानाने शीघ्र तो पावे शांति शेवटची मग ॥ ३९ ॥

नसे ज्ञान नसे श्रद्धा संशयी नासला पुरा ।
न हा लोक न तो लोक न पावे सुख संशयी ॥ ४० ॥

योगाने झाडिली कर्मे ज्ञाने संशय तोडिले ।
जो सावधान आत्म्यात कर्मे त्यास न बांधिती ॥ ४१ ॥

म्हणूनि अंतरातील अज्ञान-कृत संशय ।
तोडुनी ज्ञान-खड़गाने ऊठ तू योग साधुनी ॥ ४२ ॥

अध्याय चवथा संपूर्ण

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